Recent U.S. military interventions in Kosovo and Iraq have stirred public memories of the long and costly Vietnam conflict. Scholars and strategists, military leaders and media continue to raise questions such as what motivated the Vietnamese to wage a protracted conflict first against the French and later against the Americans at such great economic and emotional cost. In this fourth edition, SarDesai provides new insights on the decision-making process in Hanoi and Washington D.C. during the Vietnam conflict. He analyzes the extensive historiographical dialog in the 1990's involving scholars, strategists and policy-makers of the two countries. He addresses the postwar era of Vietnam's reconstruction, administrative reorganization, the U.N. sponsored Cambodian settlement, as well as Vietnam's membership and growing role in the ASEAN. SarDesai also looks at the new economic and strategic relationship between Vietnam and its former foe marked by President Clinton's visit to Hanoi and the increasing U.S. investment and trade in Vietnam in the aftermath of the Bilateral Trade Treaty (BTA) of July 2000. Concise, clear, and manageable coverage of Vietnamese history for one semester courses. Updated and expanded in the 4th edition to cover the most recent events and issues facing Vietnam, as well as providing greater depth of coverage to primary historical material.